Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2). It is a potent and abundant mineral that forms under a wide variety of conditions, making it very common on Earth. The color of quartz varies depending on the presence of impurities or defective lattices inside the structure, it can be transparent or opaque, colored or colorless.
It is highly recognized for its versatility and unique properties, in particular its resistance to abrasion and its transparency (it is optically transparent). The main varieties of quartz are rose quartz, smoky quartz, yellow quartz and citrine quartz.
Quartz is formed under diverse geological conditions including sediment deposition, transformation of metamorphic solids, hydrothermal upwelling, and metamorphic contact zone.
Quartz is widely used in industry and commerce. It is used to manufacture glass, precious stones, abrasives, sandpaper, glass capsules for the protection of pharmaceutical preparations, jewellery, quartz glasses, molds and tools for cutting metal. It is also used for some optical applications, such as fiber optic lenses and filters.